Andy Renfree博士,首席讲师 运动及运动科学,在 体育与运动科学学院“, 讨论如何he global p而且emic has impacted the world of sport 而且 what this means for the future. 

The restrictions 而且 cancellation or postponement of major sporting events like the Olympics left many fans disappointed, 尤其是运动员自己, 谁可能为那一刻训练了多年.  What are the short 而且 long-term implications of the lockdown on these elite athletes?


The 新型冠状病毒肺炎 p而且emic has had a devastating impact on both professional 而且 amateur sport. 国内和国际活动被取消或推迟, 一些备受瞩目的“受害者”包括2020年欧洲杯, 所有的世界马拉松大赛, 法国网球公开赛和温网. 尽管一些欧洲足球联赛已经重新开始, f1和高尔夫也是如此, 全球最大的体育赛事, 东京奥运会已重新安排在2021年7月举行, 这一变化对所有奥运项目的赛程都产生了重大影响.

We now have the unique situation whereby track 而且 field athletes may be faced with the prospect of a World Championships, 欧洲锦标赛, 以及2022年夏天的英联邦运动会. 这一切对组织和财务的影响显然是巨大的, 但是这对希望参加比赛的运动员可能会有什么影响呢?


尽管运动员面临着许多与“运动”相关的挑战, 不能忘记,他们对病毒本身并没有免疫力. 尽管大多数病例的症状相对较轻, 和 most at risk populations appear to be those with underlying health conditions, there are still numerous younger 而且 healthy individuals who are suffering its effects.

A group of runner dressed in brightly coloured lycra are st而且ing on a running track


在英国爆发疫情的前几周, 阿森纳主教练米克尔·阿尔特塔和切尔西球员卡勒姆·哈德森-奥多伊都生病了. 幸运的是,两人都迅速康复, 但这些案例表明,年轻, 健美和健康并不能保证提供保护. Remaining safe 而且 doing all that is possible to avoid infection therefore must remain a priority in order to maintain health status 而且 to protect the risk of transmission to higher risk individuals, 而且 it is therefore important that elite athletes adhere to all social distancing guidelines. 然而, 尽管锻炼无疑是一件“健康”的事情, it should also be noted that hard training can also temporarily compromise the immune system. 

这一观察结果首次出现在1968年墨西哥城奥运会上, where doctors noted that the incidence of upper respiratory tract infections amongst athletes was higher than in the general population. 这表明, although athletes will obviously be reluctant to halt training completely (which is almost certainly not necessary), they will need to balance this with the possibility of compromised immune function.


A further challenge that athletes 而且 coaches need to deal with relates to uncertainty. 通常, physical training programmes are planned in great detail for many months or years in advance in an attempt to achieve peak levels of performance at the desired time (a process termed ‘periodisation’). 然而, this is simply not possible at the moment because nobody really knows when things will return to normal. Although the dates of the major events are tentatively set, everything else is uncertain. 运动员不会突然出现在奥运会上,身体健康,随时准备出发, 但抵达时已经获得了资格,并完成了各种积累比赛. These cannot be planned at all at the moment as competition calendars are currently empty. 事实上, it is not even clear how athletes can qualify for the games given that national championships are on hold 和re is uncertainty surrounding training facilities. Planning training programmes effectively is therefore exceptionally difficult at the moment.



良好的训练依赖于适当的压力和恢复. It is simply not possible to perform high intensity training for months or years on end without adequate recovery periods meaning decisions are required about what needs to be done right now.

过早的过度训练会导致过早的疲劳和精疲力竭, but backing off too much risks loss of adaptations to previous high intensity training.




这可能也很困难, 特别是在封锁的早期阶段, 维持典型的培训量. Regulations in the UK for the first seven weeks of lockdown only allowed individuals to leave the house for exercise once per day, but it is very common for elite athletes to regularly train two or even three times per day.  The type of high training volume elite athletes are doing also means that they tend to get injured a lot, 当然,现在动手做物理治疗的机会非常有限.



除了时间的不确定性, a more practical logistical issue athletes have needed to overcome relates to availability of training facilities, 健身房和公共泳池之前都关闭了很长时间. 然而这对跑步者和骑自行车的人来说可能不是太大的问题, 谁通常只需要在开阔的道路上进行大部分训练, it has presented a huge problem for swimmers 而且 divers if they have had or still have no access to a pool.

解决这个问题显然是有问题的, 尽管也有一些人表现出了巨大的创造力, 比如俄罗斯游泳运动员尤利娅·艾芬莫娃, 谁用她的厨房家具来进行专项运动力量训练. 当然,这些都是个人项目. 在保持社交距离规则下, although athletes in team 而且 technical sports may have been able to maintain general fitness, 在特定的体育技能或战术上工作是极其困难的.



而新冠肺炎疫情无疑对优秀运动员产生了负面影响, 它提供了潜在的机会. Chronically injured or fatigued athletes have had the opportunity to recover both mentally 而且 physically from a relentless competition 而且 training schedule.

The enforced downtime provides an opportunity to focus on more low intensity general training that may to some extent compensate for imbalances resulting from many years of very sport specific training. The primary challenge to athletes is therefore to maintain good overall health as well as physical 而且 mental conditioning to allow them to rapidly return to normal training 而且 competitive activities once there is a return to something approaching normality.


Andy Renfree的演讲 体育与运动科学理学士应用运动科学硕士. He is interested in the determinants of sport performance from both a physiological 而且 psychological perspective.

This post was published during a time at which regulations were regularly being updated. 任何关于自我隔离的说法, travel or meeting others was accurate at the time of writing but the guidance may have changed since. 请参阅 最新政府建议.

All views expressed in this blog are the Academic’s own 而且 do not represent the views, U2电竞体育平台或其任何合作伙伴的政策或意见.