机器真的会思考吗? Is artificial intelligence the end of the human race or a tool that can aid us even after we die? Maggi Savin-Baden教授 从 教育学院 讨论人工智能在数字永生中的作用, 虚拟人类以及U2电竞体育对未来的期待.
The concept of digital immortality has emerged over the past decade 而且 is defined in this post as the continuation of an active or passive digital presence after your death. 这篇博客将解释知识管理的进步, 机器对机器通信, data mining 而且 artificial intelligence are now making an active presence after death possible. It will explain how digital immortality has moved beyond simple memorial pages 而且 ‘beyond the grave’ updates, 来自死去的家人或朋友. 现在有一些公司致力于创造数字不朽的人物形象.
鉴于与数字永生相关的一系列实践和行为, 有证据表明，它对宗教环境产生了影响. 例如，数字永生正在影响悲伤和哀悼行为. It is also creating new forms of legacy as well as introducing new issues for the funeral industry.
人工智能通常被认为是机器人或会思考的机器. 从大众的观点来看, artificial intelligence (AI) is seen as science-fiction characters like the Hal 9000 computer from 2001或者第四频道的机器人 人类. 用现代营销术语来说, it is taken as any reasonably complex programme or algorithm – often based on machine-learning principles, 但人工智能的复杂性和多样性远不止于此. Recently there have been considerable improvements to AI such as better text-to-speech, improved speech recognition 而且 high-quality avatars (the bodily manifestation of one’s self).
The challenge with Artificial intelligence is to cross the ‘uncanny valley’; the idea that human replicas may elicit feelings of eeriness in looks, 声音，尤其是行为, 比如情绪反应. 例如, virtual assistants such as Siri 而且 Alexa provide voice 而且 conversational interfaces to information 而且 begin to deliver on some of the promises of virtual personal assistants. The growth in the use of machine learning techniques to mine large amounts of data 而且 to make deductions from it that can equal (or even exceed) human analysis.
Hern reported that The European Parliament has urged the drafting of a set of regulations to govern the use 而且 creation of robots 而且 artificial intelligence.[i] 建议需要处理的领域是:
- A legal definition of ‘smart autonomous robots’, with a registration for the most advanced;
- An advisory code of conduct to guide the ethical design, production 而且 use of robots;
- A new reporting structure for companies requiring them to report the contribution of robotics 而且 AI to the economic results of a company for the purpose of taxation 而且 social security contributions
这份报告特别关注了自动驾驶汽车的未来, 比如自动驾驶汽车, but as yet there seems relatively little detail about how this might be implemented or developed. 然而, 2017年秋季索菲亚, 一个人形机器人在联合国发表演讲, 为了促使人们认识到需要进行更多的辩论, 以及这方面的立法.
One of the main shifts has been to move away from a general underst而且ing of AI 而且 instead to refer to different types. 一个特别的增长领域是虚拟人. 图灵提出了一个他称之为"模仿游戏"的测试，, 设计用来回答“机器能思考吗”的问题?’[i] 他预测，他提出的测试将在2000年左右通过, 但事实并非如此.
In the 1980s Searle suggested that the computer is just a symbol processing machine 而且 it cannot be said to think.[i]
If a machine can play chess better than the very best human player, does that make it intelligent? 塞尔会说没有, 只有人类程序员才是聪明的, 谁给机器编程来实现他们的想法. 然而, how is this different from a human mentor that teaches a student to play chess? Do we say the mentor is intelligent 而且 the student is merely following the rules she was taught?
It is evident 从 literature that ‘虚拟人’ tends to be used as an overarching term that includes Chatbots, 自主代理和教学代理. 虚拟人 are characters on the computer screen with embodied life-like behaviours such as speech, 情绪, 运动和手势. Evidence has shown that many users are not only comfortable interacting with high-quality 虚拟人, but that an emotional connection can be developed between users 而且 as 虚拟人. The focus is on enabling the user to interact with the software using everyday language rather than clicking on icons or using menu selections.
许多人关心人工智能的影响和未来. 尽管有些担心是有道理的, it is important to be aware of the ways in which media coverage can exaggerate claims.
There are legitimate concerns about artificial intelligence being used to control cars 而且 weapons systems. 然而, it is probably unlikely that as Stephen Hawking suggests that ‘the development of full AI would spell the end of the human race.’
U2电竞体育不仅看到了知识管理的进步, data mining 而且 artificial intelligence but also in merging our human bodies with technology. This ‘body hacking’ includes inserting chips into our arms to open doors 而且 pick up metal objects, 而且 implanting antenna into our brains to translate the colour spectrum into different vibrations, 使用户能够“听到”颜色. 然而对一些人来说，这被视为艺术, 对另一些人来说，这是在玩弄科技, there are useful advances such as the creation of bone implants that enable the mounting of a replacement arm on to the skeleton which can then be controlled naturally, 利用大脑信号.
 A. “欧盟委员会认为，应该给予机器人‘人格’地位” 《卫报》 17th 1月(2017).
 A. 图灵，“计算机和智能”， 心，LIX/236(1950)，页. 433–460.
Maggi Savin-Baden教授他的研究经常关注学习中的创新和变化, 以及虚拟世界及其在教学中的作用. Professor Savin-Baden has recently Co-authored a new book with David Burden on virtual humans called "虚拟人类的今天和明天 which explores virtual humans in a variety of roles, from personal assistants to teachers .
All views expressed in this blog are the Academic’s own 而且 do not represent the views, U2电竞体育平台或其任何合作伙伴的政策或意见.